Elizabeth Anderson has provided the critical lens to investigate traditional epistemological assumptions, it has 2 main points: acknowledges achievement of feminist criticism of science which aims to reveal sexism in theoretical knowledge and defends feminist scientific practices. commitment to liberation of women and nature and souls for all persons, could only be satisfied by the branch of Natural Social epistemology she focuses on “feminist ways of knowing ” in the midst of knowledge generally labeled as “masculine”.
Each sex works in its own appropriate sphere of action, there being a proper subordination, deference and respect of the female to the male in his order, and of the male to the female in her order [emphasis added], so that in any of these communities the zealous advocates of “women’s rights” may here find a practical realization of their ideal.

Naturalized, social epistemology maintains its commitment with modest empiricism and Rational Inquiry. (1) Modest Empiricism – promiscuous in permissible ontology provides defeasible evidence of we have about the would; development of best theories requires • fullest & freest development of imagination but no reason to think that our presently cramped imagination set the world limit of. actual length of Imagination of the world.

The ideas that feminism have raised about the influence of gender on science claim has been unimaginable To dismissing such claims out of hand nothing justifies this; Modest empiricism – purely methodological “doctrine, rejects a priori commitments to what the content of our theories and models must be. (2) Rationality: Reflective endorsement is the only test for whether a consideration counts as a reason for having any attitude, tools, test methodologies of others experience to get the data they cant being, pert their theory underway so that the whole community of inquirers can participate in the scientific investigation.

The idea:
There are 4 categories in naturalized social epistemology: gender structure & labor. symbolism & masculine phenomenon. Androcenterism In different domains of study. Theory & practice. gendered division of theoretical labour:
(a) women’s exclusion documented history of peeping women away from theoretical inquiry. Formal restrictions and barriers Into studying various academic disciplines. Parents socialize women and children do not excel or study masculine subject Maths & natural science.
(b) Discrimination at school level: mixed gender school favoring boys. Boys marginalice girl students by sexual hour. Interruption; detrimental.
(C) Racial preference treatment :- white Boys are given more attention, participation & encouragement than girls in schools, disciplinary studies.
(d) sexual harassment & exclusion :- Male students having been more supporting and being encouraged relatively more than women students’ If they clear college degree spaces- faculty academic ambition less, sexual harassment to them, then they are not treated equally with men in academic institutions.
The struggle for women’s rights, and the task of creating a new United Nations, able to promote peace and the values which nurture and sustain it, are one and the same. Today – more than ever – the cause of women is the cause of all humanity.

low pay scale & unemployment :- low pay scale, starting salary law position, less Research support, lower Ranks & positions higher unemployment pate 2 gender symbolism- The hierarchy of knowledge can be seen in following forms:- (i) Masculine feminine dichotomy:- there are conceptual dichotomies that subjective / objective model objective and subjective culture/ nature; Reason / emotion mind body; (i) Distortion by sexist imagery. :- These scandalous dichotomies formed conceptions of knowledge was shaped sexist view between men & women. (ii) conception of prestige & honor :- gender symbolism appears on 2 levels of knowledge practices, Authorities and prestige next sexism in scientific theory eg(2) Ideological of paternal justifications of the structures men are disqualified but not for women eg- IQ Test: higher score on Scientific IQ Test Androcentricism. for women than men marks Results distorted their -Man Is taken to be norm Of humanness.

Male Monopoly on sci- matters. Women experiences & point of view to shape perspectives from moving their own perspectives/ assertions considered as Problematic. Women has been subservient to male and auxiliary; superiority / Inferiority active 4 life and passive death- women always characterized as “others”; Inferior Androcentrism gender central inadequate . (1) Impersonal & The practical Scientific knowledge (i) tailored to reeds theocratical knowledge tailored to the needs of men as has been contended by feminist epistemologists. “Masculine” & prohibited women from practicing or perusing these courses BECAUSE, It would divert their vital energies from their reproductive power Capacities by- Collins 1990 and by Hubbard 1990.

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Chaitanya Sharma
B.A Philosophy (Hons.) from Hansraj College, University of Delhi


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